Single-walled kitchens come into play in small homes or apartments and open-plan kitchens. Here are a few tips in making the most of your single-walled kitchen.
Embrace a Sociable Layout: The Single-Wall Kitchen is the epitome of a social layout. There are no added walls, which opens up the space for entertaining. Although a single-wall kitchen allows one person to cook at a time, it still allows others to access it. Make sure to keep this in mind when choosing furniture for the kitchen and accommodating your lifestyle!
Make it Efficient: Space is limited in this type of kitchen so planning out every detail is imperative. In a single-walled kitchen, usually, the fridge is on the far end of the kitchen run. The sink is located next to the fridge with counter space on either side. Beneath the counter, is the dishwasher and more storage space. On the far side of this, the oven and cooktop are located with ample counter space for safe food preparation with more storage beneath. Maybe you want to include tall cabinets to bookend the kitchen. Just makes sure that your layout makes sense to you because you are the one that will be using it daily.
Use a Standard Run of Cabinets: Just like in any other kitchen, you will want to include overhead cabinetry. This will create more space to store anything and everything that you need in your kitchen. Do not worry if this run of cabinets goes the entire length of the wall. This is normal. Be aware that if you wish to include a vent-a-hood, this is where it will be placed.
Mixed Shelving: You may not want a run of cabinets to span the entire length of the wall because design-wise you find it going against your aesthetic taste. Have no fear! There are other alternatives to breaking up this span of cabinets. Consider mixing in some open shelving or have shelving on the wall to the right or the left of the kitchen, making it décor with a purpose.
Bridged Upper Cabinets: Talk about adding storage space and utilizing every little inch of the kitchen. Bridged upper cabinets usually have tall cabinets on either side and cabinets that are placed on top of your other cabinets. If you want, make the upper cabinets stick out a little bit farther than the other run of cabinets to create a layered, sunken effect that adds depth to your kitchen. The cabinets come in an assortment of materials and colors, which makes it easy to find a run of bridge cabinets that will fit with the other cabinets you have.
Make sure to store items that are less used and get a cute foldaway footstool to access the items in those cabinets.
Max Out Storage: With a limited amount of cabinet space available, getting creative with other storage options is a must! Consider making your pantry larger to accommodate more items and maybe even a few countertop appliances. Add an island into the layout of your kitchen and place cabinets underneath. Get creative with your storage because the sky is the limit…or maybe the ceiling in this case.
Choose Appliances Wisely: Selecting appliances for a single-walled kitchen should not be a chore and you should not have to compromise. Lucky for you, appliance companies are designing their appliances for small, compact spaces. There is a plethora of compact dishwashers, compact ovens, microwave ovens and warming drawers. If you are going to have an open-plan arrangement, make sure that your appliances run quietly to reduce objections from those who are watching TV or reading in the spaces that connect to the kitchen area.
Add an Island: An island is a good way to add more storage space, increase your counter space and create more seating if needed. If you plan one well, it will accent the kitchen.
Rolling into 2016 and you want to stay on top of the latest trends? Here you will find simple ideas and ways to keep your house looking sharp no matter what your budget is. Make sure to look at our Pinterest Look books to see these ideas in full swing to help you think of fun ways to incorporate these trends!
1. The “Glamily” Room:
What is a Glamily room you ask? Well it is the newest hybrid of the family room: Glamorous yet still a family room. There is no reason why such a popular room in your house should be drab.
Yes, your dog will be running around, your husband will be watching football with a cold one and your kids will be eating Doritos while they watch their favorite movies with their friends, but have no fear. Glamour should not be lost and neither will your sanity.
Pair up fabrics that are durable, but still beautiful with unique pieces of furniture and amazing silhouettes to still retain beauty in such a fun, popular room.
2. Monthly Club:
Monthly clubs seem to be all the rage right now. Whether it is samples, wines, or beauty products, it makes getting the mail a little bit more fun because it will not only be bills and advertisements.
The monthly clubs are not just restricted to the above. Recently, there have been clubs created for bouquets, artisan goods from around the world and surprises for your pets!
3. Boutique Showrooms:
Boutique showrooms are wonderful hidden gems within the design world. These local startups are a treasure trove of original one-of-a-kind pieces ranging from furniture to textiles.
Take the time to go and peruse these places even if you are just trying to gain some inspiration as you move forward. You may just see something that you can do yourself for the fraction of the cost or something that you cannot live without.
4. Bed Linens with Pizzazz:
Open up your hope chest and pull put your favorite quilt that was made by your grandmother because they are fully in and white bed sheets are out!
Mix and match fun patterns to make your room more interesting and unique. The sky is the limit on this one.
5. Pretty Pendants:
You have seen these lights hanging in all the trendy new restaurants and residences. They are the trendy, new chandelier for 2016. These fixtures come in all sorts of shapes, colors and sizes. You will find one that suits your taste and will seamlessly fit into your existing décor without breaking the bank.
Make sure to hit up places like World Market, Hobby Lobby and Pinterest to help in your quest to find the perfect pendant.
6. Perky Pedestals:
Add some height into your house by adding a pedestal into the décor. These are perfect for adorning even your tiniest of corners.
They come in a variety of styles and materials and are perfect to house your favorite house plant, vase, sculpture or cat. Keep your eyes open for a unique piece that will add to your pre-existing aesthetic.
7. Return of the Desk:
2016 is kicking everyone off of their "home office" bed and onto a desk.
These new desks are no longer the large bulky oak desks that seem to weigh a million pounds, but more of a piece of high-gloss art. So, run to Ikea and find the perfect desk for you and dress it up with fun lamps and colorful textiles and pillows for your chair. The more unique your new home office is the better.
Remember that this is your space to be productive so, try and tailor your decoration to this idea.
8. Traditional Tableware:
Yes, you read that right, Traditional tableware. Pull out your grandmother’s china, gravy boats, footed bowls and silver from the crates in the garage and shine them up and dust them off.
Create beautiful tablescapes by intermixing the old with the new. The pieces that are found in the traditional tablescape are beautiful and have intriguing patterns that will liven up any meal while bringing back memories of your childhood.
9. Mixed Metals:
Mix and match metals like no other. As long as it has a metal sheen, mix them. Metal sconces, metal wall art, metallic fabrics, use them all. Bringing in and combing multiple types of metals, textures and natural elements in any home will create a sophisticated look that seems effortlessly put together.
Keep your eyes peeled for that show stopping piece that will not break the bank!
10. Fabric Wall Art:
Forget wallpaper, we now have wall fabric and Robert Allen is paper-backing nearly all of its textiles for a flat fee. There is definitely at least one fabric that will catch your eye and when added to a room will easily turn into a conversation starter.
You are not limited to using unique fabrics on walls. Simply re-cover your favorite seats and ottomans for an update that is as simple as pulling out a few staples from a piece of wood. Your house can be changed significantly for a low price.
11. A Delft Touch:
Have you heard of Delft? Delft pottery is from 17th-century Holland and uses dark blues and whites to create images of charming country life. These pieces can be found online and in antique stores across the nation.
Buy one or two pieces to spruce up your room or find look alikes to get more for your buck. Keep in mind that if you do buy real Delft pottery that it is extremely collectable.
12. Better Sleep:
Sleep is a natural part of any life-cycle and boy, has the technology come far for this art form.
Have you heard about the new mattresses that help cool your body as you sleep? How about the headrest that incorporates airflow technology with a memory foam pillow? Or the pillow that is specially made for the sleepers who move around all night in their dreamland?
If you are in the market for some new bedding, make sure to see what has come out recently to help you sleep better at night and to wake fully rested in the morning.
13. Guatemalan Fabrics:
Aztec patterns are out and Guatemalan hand-made fabrics are in. These brightly colored weavings all are the rage and nothing is better than getting handcrafted pieces of art to decorate your house with.
They will add a bohemian feel to any room. Find them in pillows, throws, wall hangings or even coasters.
14. Consignment Now:
Trying to find a unique piece that no one has? Go the consignment or thrift shop route. Not only can you buy from some of these places, but you can also sell pieces there. If you happen to have a piece that you no longer want, call up your local consignment store and see if they can help you find a new home for your old furniture so you can clear space for new!
Always remember that upcycling is in. If you find a piece at a garage sale or thrift store and it needs a new paint coat or you want to switch out the drawer pulls, look no further than your local home improvement store!
The National Kitchen & Bath Association announced at its annual conference last week that transitional kitchens are currently the top kitchen design. Trends that the NKBA expects to see in kitchens in 2016 include:
Gray, white and off-white cabinets
Pull-outs, tilt-outs and tilt-ins for storage space
Quartz and granite countertops
Built-in coffee stations and wet bars
Special pet spaces
Docking and charging stations
Along with the three most popular kitchen styles -- transitional, traditional and contemporary -- industrial and farmhouse kitchens are becoming favorable. The kitchen designs hold a different charm, but have all proved to be functional.
The NKBA discovered neutral colors are still preferred in kitchens, but using two or more colors has increased since 2015. This includes using multiple colored cabinets or choosing a separate material for the countertop rather than matching the surrounding counter space. By following this trend, people are adding multiple textures and colors that attract attention in the kitchen.
Outdoor kitchens continue to be a growing trend, specifically in the Southeast United States. The outdoor entertainment areas have caught on with those seeking to integrate nature and cooking together.
Not only are homeowners spoiling themselves with their kitchens, but pets are benefitting as well. Special storage space for pet food and toys, feeding stations or under-counter crate areas are often preferred in the pet lovers’ home.
As trends change over time, we are seeing one thing in particular: homeowners are being met with more options to make their kitchens efficient and attractive at the same time. We look forward to seeing the kitchen designs of 2016.
The popular BBC television show, Downton Abbey, recently began its sixth season. It first aired in 2010 and after the phenomenon swept across the Atlantic Ocean, Americans soon began to decorate their homes in “Downton fashion.” In this period drama, the audience becomes a voyeur into the life of the Crawley family during the early 1900s.
The setting is a large Jacobethan country home that sits on a 5,000-acre estate. Filmed at Highclere Castle in Hampshire, England, the furnishings reflect a period of grandeur full of sweeping staircases, rich pigment paints, grand dining rooms, ornate furnishings and heritage paintings.
Rather than breaking the bank to achieve the Edwardian style of the aristocracy, here are a few ways to bring Downton (a.k.a. Highclere Castle) home.
Brocade, Jacquard & Damask:
The brocade, jacquard and damask patterns can be found on wallpapers and fabrics. When using these ornate fabrics, you can make curtains, reupholster furniture or just apply them to home décor accessories such as: table lamps or wall art. They come in numerous patterns, mainly flowers, fruit and other designs, and many different colors. There should be one that works with your color scheme or style.
Molding and Ceiling Medallions:
Don’t leave out your ceilings! A lot can be done to them for a low price. Molding comes in many different styles. They range from simple molding with corner curves to deep, boxy, angular ceilings with rosettes and other carved motifs. To get this same look for a budget, use embossed wallpaper on ceilings installed within an inset formed by a small molding applied to the ceiling 12- 18” from the perimeter walls. Paint the textured wallpaper in a semi-gloss or gloss paint, giving it the effect of formed plaster. Add ceiling medallions to your chandeliers and other surface mount fixtures to create a beautiful effect to an otherwise plain ceiling. By adding creative and artistic patterns to your ceilings, it creates depth and acts as a “rug” for the ceiling. We will get to floor rugs in a bit.
Chandeliers come in many different shapes and sizes and will add a grand aesthetic with very little effort. A small one is economical when it comes to creating an Edwardian style within a budget. These miniature chandeliers are perfect for entry ways, on tables and in bathrooms; adding a little sparkle wherever they are placed. They can be found for a decent price in thrift stores, antique malls and other home improvement stores. If your budget allows, go for the big chandeliers. They are breathtaking.
Gold (or any other metallic) Acrylic Paint:
This stuff works miracles when dealing with a budget. Go for an antiqued gold rather than a bright gold because most of the furnishings in Downton are antiques and gilded with gold. Add this to wall sconces, lamp bases, ornate frames and just about anything else to add a little luxury into the décor for pennies on the dollar.
Richly Pigmented Paint:
Choosing colors from the color scheme of Downton is now easier than ever because Kelly Moore has created a line of paint that specifically resembles the colors of Highclere Castle. They range from jewel tones to pastels. If you choose not to buy from that line, choose a paint with a rich pigmented color. Pigment rich color’s characteristics are highly concentrated, bright and rich.
Tassels are an easy way to give a sense of luxury to a room. Use them to wrap up your new brocade, jacquard or damask curtains and hold them back to allow light into your home. They can also be added to pillows, blankets and lamps. Tassels come in a range of sizes and colors that can easily be incorporated into your Edwardian facelift.
When searching for antiques to fit the “Downton” style, go for either French or English ones. Look for paintings that show hunting scenes or a pair of ornately carved, mirrored sconces. Keep an eye out for large mirrors in gilded or dark-stained frames. There are many different pieces that are unique to the Edwardian time period and can be found in antique malls across the nation and world. Who knows what great deals you may stumble upon with a little searching.
Oriental & Persian Rugs:
Oriental and Persian Rugs add wonderful texture and color to any room. They come in a plethora of colors and patterns with patterns of flora and fauna. The rugs come in a multitude of sizes ranging from pillow to very large. The price range varies, and there are lots of places that offer them for a discount. Pick up a runner or average-shaped rugs and place them in a hall or in the living room. The options are limitless.
If you really get in a bind or need creative inspiration, the creators of Downton Abbey just launched their home furnishing line. The prices are reasonable and are perfect to incorporate into your rooms.
Then when you settle in to watch the latest season of Downton Abbey, you can do so in Downton luxury.
As we prepare to ring in the New Year, Pantone is ringing in new color trends. They will be incorporated into graphic design, fashion, interior design and so much more.
The two colors chosen were a pastel blue named “Serenity” and a light pink named “Rose Quartz.” You can see them in the image to the left. This is the first time in history that Pantone has released two colors for Color of the Year.
These colors were chosen because “joined together, Rose Quartz and Serenity demonstrate an inherent balance between a warmer embracing rose tone and the cooler tranquil blue, reflecting connection and wellness, as well as a soothing sense of order and peace,” Leatrice Eiseman, executive director of the Pantone Color Institute said in the statement.
They perfectly accent Benjamin Moore’s 2016 Color of the Year, “Simply White.” In the color palette (right ) that they chose to go with their “Simply White” paint color, they have included a soft pink that resembles “Rose Quartz” (Cream Puff) and “Serenity” (Morning Sky Blue).
“People are ready for softer colors. They are moving away from the strong bold colors and geometric patterns that have been popular over the past few years. There is a return to comfort and innocence,” Los Angeles interior designer Timothy Corrigan told the L.A. Times.
In fact, these two colors already were popular together on the runway at shows such as Chanel, Fendi, Prada, Thom Browne, Richard James and Roberto Cavalli in their 2016 collections shown earlier this year.
Make sure to include these colors or shades of them in your house as you are thinking about renovating and updating your spaces and closet!
Personality is what lights up a room, a conversation and a situation. In the same way, light fixtures have a way of adding personality to a room. My grandmother once told me the more lights I can turn on in a room, the merrier it will become. We all contribute our own energies in particular situations but allowing more physical light to shine in a room has a special way of lifting the mood. Today’s homeowners have even more options when it comes to lighting. If you’re searching for a new light fixture, consider the qualities that might suit your home:
- Color — If the shade of the fixture has a bright color, the piece will stand out from the rest of the room. The same goes for colorless shades; adding a shade that doesn’t make a loud statement will create an effortless appearance.
- Shape — The shape of the fixture says something different ranging from simple to complex.
- Size –A light fixture is a vital part of any room, rather it is built in (like can lights in the ceiling) or added as part of the room décor. The light will fill up the room but the amount of space the fixture will take must be considered. For example, choose a hanging fixture as a great way to avoid adding clutter.
The type of fixtures obviously make a difference in the setting the scene of your home. For example, recessed (or can) lighting will light up your room evenly from above and out of sight. Floor lamps project light from only one location. Hanging chandeliers on the other hand project light from one location as well but add character to a space. A small lamp in the bathroom casts a warm glow over the small room and doubles as a night light. Table lamps are great options for living rooms, office desks or even front entryways. Lighting under cabinets certainly add personality with a way to showcase items in your kitchen.
Make your own statement with lighting. Ask yourself how you would like to feel when you come home and how the lighting will affect the overall ambiance of your home.
Sunday represents three things for me: faith, family and food. After church, we trek back to my grandparents’ home to dine on southern fried chicken and hold conversations ranging from politics to family anecdotes to the latest gossip in the entertainment world. This simple tradition holds a very special place in my heart and is sacred to me.
My grandparents’ kitchen is a place of gathering and fellowship. The six (and sometimes 10) of us do our specific jobs in preparing the food and the 8-foot dining room table. After we gather around the island for prayer and have served ourselves enough food to last for weeks, we make a mad dash to our self-assigned seats to begin eating and enjoying each other’s company.
Ten years before this, the story was very different and the tradition nearly died off. My grandparents’ home caught fire when lightning struck a nearby oak tree, and the flames jumped to the roof. They were displaced from their home, our place of fellowship. After the remodel, the kitchen reached its full potential and embraced a universal design.
Yes, the fire was heartbreaking and the rebuild was tiring, but the effort and attention to detail was well worth it.
They opened up the kitchen and dining space and added counter space to create more space for cooking. They knocked down walls that separated the breakfast nook from the kitchen and installed a 10-foot granite island that had rounded edges so the grandkids would not hurt themselves if they bumped their heads. Power strips line the underside of the island bar so the kitchen would become a place of gathering for those who are working on projects. The cabinetry is built into the wall and is tucked away to optimize the space for gathering and entertaining. The light switches are 3.5 feet off the ground so grandchildren can reach them. The lower height also will help someone in a wheelchair, making the kitchen truly universal.
In essence, the beautiful, open French-style kitchen that is at the heart of my family’s tradition would not be here if it were not for a tragedy and a wonderful remodel. My grandparents were able to create their dream kitchen from scratch, bringing their family and friends joy and fellowship beyond measure.
Editor’s Note: Hannah Pittman wrote the article above about her grandparents' old kitchen and newly remodeled one.
Do you find yourself constantly adding “paper towels” to your grocery list? Didn’t you just buy a 12-pack at your local warehouse retail store? Growing up, it would drive my mother insane when we kids would use paper towels. When drying our hands, we’d tear off two or three paper towels from the roll. A spill on the floor? You don’t want to know! She thought buying the smaller cut paper towels would incline us to use fewer; they didn’t. With little hands and big messes, paper towels and napkins are always the first things to go.
Maybe it’s time to ditch the paper products in the kitchen all together! Here are four reasons to go paperless in the kitchen:
- Less Cost – Look at your receipts and see just how much you’re spending on paper towels every time you run to the store.
- Less Waste – no more using half a roll to clean up a kitchen spill, especially when cloths can be rinsed and reused on the same mess.
- Space Saver – stop cramming all those rolls into pantry and cabinet spaces.
- Be Green – make yourself, and your family feel better about cutting back on paper products. When cloths get crummy, they make great car wash/outdoor/cleaning rags.
First thing first, get the whole house on board. Stop buying paper towels and paper napkins, take the paper towel holder off the counter and make sure the family knows what’s going on. Realistically, you should keep a few rolls of paper towels around for emergencies, but don’t store them in the kitchen. Using cloth napkins with the kids is a simple way to teach dinner etiquette by placing napkins in their laps, instead of crumpling a paper towel on the table. Additionally, add “fold kitchen cloths” to the chore chart.
- Cloth napkins – Now you don’t need to break out the five-star restaurant napkins when it’s sloppy joe night. However, cloth napkins come in a variety of sizes and materials for everyday use. Plenty of stores have them on sale, or clearance, especially after a major holiday or in between season. Collect different colors and patterns, mix and match for different color schemes to go with events or your kitchen color pallet. Get creative!
- Make your own reusable paper towels – Diaper cloth, or Birdseye cloth, can be purchased at any fabric store, and at a reasonable price! Cut the cloth into equal sized pieces, and store in a basket by the kitchen sink to use as hand-drying towels. If you have a seamstress in the family, serge the edges with colorful thread.
- Separate towels for dish-drying and hand-drying purposes.
Storing Your Cloths:
- In plain sight – Store clean towels in a decorative kitchen jar: a glass cookie jar, a flour canister Roll them pretty. Not only will they be decorative, but they will spark interest and conversation about your paperless movement.
- Designate a cloth drawer to store all your cloths. For seasonal decorations, use a plastic storage bin to keep cloths sealed off from dust (and to save space).
- Used cloth bin – keep a hamper or basket in your pantry or under the sink for used cloths. This will be easy to transport it to the laundry room, and it will be in convenient location.
Speaking of laundry, the idea of doing additional loads may deter you from going paperless. Consider washing all your used cloths together, in one load once a week, or even every two? Developing a process with help with the laundry as well.
Going paperless doesn’t happen overnight, but taking small steps will help the transition. Once you’ve created a system that works for you and your family, it will be a convenient and cost-efficient change that you (and your wallet) will appreciate. And while you may not go completely paperless, every little bit helps!
Spring has sprung! Hopefully you’ve completed all that dreaded, but necessary, spring cleaning. Now, it’s time to have some fun! In addition to being National Barbeque Month (which we should all participate), May is also National Home Improvement Month. The sunshine and pleasant weather create the perfect time of year to work on both those interior and exterior projects you’ve been meaning to cross off your checklist.
This year, the National Association of the Remodeling Industry (NARI) ranks bathrooms and kitchens as the top two remodeling projects of 2015. Everything from refacing cabinets and resurfacing countertops to reconfiguring a space altogether make many homeowners’ wish lists. If your wish list is all in your head, grab a pen and paper and start writing them out. It may be overwhelming at first, but mapping out your projects is a great way to visualize all that you want to do. Take care of the DIY nuisances, like changing the lightbulbs and touching up the marks on the walls. Knock out the small projects – they will add up and make you feel significantly better about your home!
Next, take a look at the bigger projects you may have been avoiding, maybe the ones you promised you’d tackle in the new year, but haven’t quite gotten around to? There’s no time like the present, especially when it’s National Home Improvement Month!
If you’re remodeling, repairing, constructing or landscaping, remember to prioritize your tasks according to safety. If the projects you’ve been putting off pose a risk to your family, visitors or pets, consider completing those first. The best way to ensure safe improvements is to seek assistance from a professional. If you are planning on any large-scale renovations, always consult an expert before attempting to do it yourself.
National Home Improvement Month is about improving the quality of you home. In addition to safety, look to make economically and ecologically sound upgrades. Energy-saving fixtures and appliances reduce your energy use and reduce your monthly bills. Discuss with a remodeler about ways to invest now to save yourself from costly repairs down the road.
Spend some time thinking about the functionality of your kitchen, bathroom, or bedroom and decide where you can make a difference, small or large, to better your home for the upcoming summer. Again, experts like DreamMaker remodelers and designers can help by asking the right questions about what you want and need in your kitchen or bathroom.
Whether it’s something from your “honey-do” list or your must-do list, follow the trend and celebrate National Home Improvement Month this year!
Four bedrooms, attached garage, home office…. the list goes on. When creating the perfect home, we begin the list of “must haves.” A staple with many homeowners is the ‘open concept’ kitchen. Open layouts seamlessly connect the kitchen with living and dining areas. They create the illusion of a bigger space, and are practical for families and frequent entertainers alike. The open concept serves as a central activity location, as the kitchen expands into other areas of the home. What’s more, the expansion continues.
Just when you thought the open concept couldn’t be any more open, the kitchen has embraced yet another aspect of the home: the backyard. No longer confined to the four walls of the home, “inside-outside” kitchens have created a new opportunity to change the open illusion to an open reality.
Whether your home opens to a field, farm, forest, or fenced-in yard, indoor-outdoor kitchens are functional anywhere. With the use of windows, doors and patios, the kitchen has been redesigned with nature in mind.
Windows and doors are powerful metaphors about access to new opportunities. The opportunity to experience the exterior beauty of your home is even more impressive. Filling walls with glass windows and doors provide a panoramic view of the outdoors, city and country alike. These windows and doors come in many shapes and sizes. Large bay windows optically and physically expand living spaces to the surround yard. When opened, they welcome the beautiful weather and when closed, they provide a picturesque experience to the falling rain or snow. For more interactive kitchens, wall-length accordion glass doors allow customizable exposure to the yard. Doors can be opened, partially or completely, to let sun rays in and let family members come and go as they please.
When weather conditions are good, but not great, patios are more equipped to accommodate guests. With coverings, outdoor heat lamps, ceiling fans and water misters, outdoor kitchens are proving more useful in months other than May. In some homes, kitchen counters extend from the interior to the exterior without a change in style or countertop. These extended countertops project onto the patio and provide seating and serving space for gatherings and camaraderie.
The open plan layout is accessible, hospitable and practical for many. As homeowners look to remodel older homes into more communal living spaces, keep in mind the additional access that an inside-outside kitchen can provide.